По-русски

Health Constructor

In this issue, we are publishing the concept of a standard clinic designed by UNK Project, which took second place in the competition organized by the Union of Architects of Russia in collaboration with the Healthcare Ministry.

Natalia Koriakovskaia

Written by:
Natalia Koriakovskaia
Translated by:
Anton Mizonov

02 September 2020
Object
mainImg
Architect:
Yuliy Borisov
Firm:
UNK project
The typical and standardized projects, by and large, have been firmly standing their ground for the last seven decades, yet recently their agenda got a new development impulse. KB “Strelka” has conducted a competition of standardized housing projects; similar tasks were posed by the integrated home-building factories modernization program. A year ago, a competition was held for projects of nursing homes. Now new proposals have appeared about setting similar goals for hospital buildings. The concept by UNK Project is one of such proposals; it scored second place in this competition in the nomination “the largest hospital buildings for 400+ beds”.

Health Constructor
Copyright: © UNK project


Health Constructor
Copyright: © UNK project


The very name of the concept – “Health Constructor” – explains its two main goals and characteristics. “Constructor” implies that this project is flexible and can be scaled up to fit various conditions, while its structure can also be varied. “Health” implies the ideological basis of the image solution of the building, which is regarded not so much as a place for sick people as a place where people get well.

author photo

Julius Borisov, UKN Project

“People’s health is the cornerstone of our concept. For this, we developed special functional zoning, and the very architecture of the building, which is no longer of the “hospital” kind but rather looks like a health center. And, since this is still a project to be duplicated, we came up with a clear and simple solution, which can be scaled up and varied in order to avoid a situation when all of our cities will get look-alike hospitals”.


Scheme and function constructor

Let us start with the land site. Oftentimes, when a stock solution is “landed” on some specific territory, various difficulties pop up having to do with “tying it” to the specific location, entailing additional expenses. In order to avoid that, UNK Project scales up the “construction set” principle on the “game field” itself, i.e. proposes to functionally divide the land site in accordance with some certain logic. The territory of the clinic is divided into four zones – a private one for the hospital patients, a public space with guest parking spaces, isolated blocks (for example, the infection department), and the transport/maintenance zone. All of this is also tied in with the transport scheme: there are five independent drive entrances to the territory, which divide the flows of the visitors and the personnel, the ambulance stations, and the isolated departments.

Health Constructor. The planting diagram
Copyright: © UNK project


Health Constructor. The transport diagram
Copyright: © UNK project


The same kind of logic is used to present a “ready-made” or “pre-packed” landscaping concept: more abundant vegetation for smaller hospital yards, green “wing flats” for the anatomical/pathological unit, lawns in the area of the main pedestrian routes, convenient personnel parking places, loading bays, and the ambulance helicopter landing. 

Health Constructor. The functional zones
Copyright: © UNK project


Now about the construction set of the building itself: in order to have an opportunity to comparatively quickly fine-tune the project to different settings and surroundings – for example, to build a clinic in Yakutia or make its ward units larger in accordance with the current requirements – the structure of the volume is divided into 11 functional units that can be assembled pretty much like building blocks. At the same time, these blocks are independent enough; they can be taken out, or, on the other hand, added up, as well as divided in accordance with the construction priorities depending on the current task.

Health Constructor. Adaptation during design and operation
Copyright: © UNK project


Health Constructor. Adaptation during design and operation
Copyright: © UNK project


The nucleus of such a construction set is the central group of public spaces with a lobby and a management office, around which the other units are built up, both vertically and horizontally. These are groups of outpatient clinics – one for adults, and one for children – ward units, a maternity hospital, and another three isolated blocks, which technologically must stand at a certain distance from the others – the infection and pathological units, and the ambulance station.

Health Constructor
Copyright: © UNK project


The central group is not just an entrance with a reception desk, but a full-fledged public space where one can take a rest, visit with the patients, buy flowers, check into a drugstore, or have a bite to eat. By turning this rather spacious zone into the conceptual center of the clinic, UNK Project emphasizes a humanistic character of modern interpretation of the very hospital function – people get into clinics not to be sick and to suffer but to recover and get healthy. This is why on 3D renders the entrance group looks rather like the lobby of a health resort, or a fitness club, or a community center.

Health Constructor. The main entrance in an individual block
Copyright: © UNK project


Further on, the concept establishes some certain rules of unit arrangement – what to place where in order to facilitate navigation for doctors and patients, as well as reduce the time of them moving along the clinic’s corridors. The function provides for necessary division of flows of the patients and personnel.

Health Constructor. Construction set principle: 11 blocks
Copyright: © UNK project


On the first floor, next to the entrance block, the outpatient clinics and the first-aid station are placed, as well as an emergency room, admission departments of hospitals, and a department of palliative and outpatient oncological care. The second floor contains an auditorium, laboratories, situated at an equal distance from the other departments, functional diagnostics, and X-ray rooms. The third floor provides the connection between the hospitals and the operating theater and the intensive care wards. The fourth floor is occupied by the maternity center and the outpatient clinic for adults. The fifth floor is neurological; the sixth is cardiology. The underground level comprises the personnel premises such as cloakrooms, a canteen, a management office, and a gym.

Health Constructor. Assembling blocks and adapting solutions
Copyright: © UNK project


Health Constructor. Connections of the functional content of the blocks
Copyright: © UNK project


The benefits of standardization 

The complex and rigid technology of hospital construction requires special knowledge from the designers, and this is why hospitals lend themselves to standardized construction. But then again, according to the UNK idea, this does not keep the project from being flexible – its inherent modular character is ensured by a single construction pitch and a standardized width of the premises within the block. This, in turn, helps to adapt it to the current needs both at the design and operation stages. For example a 5400x4800 mm grid cell may contain two rooms 12 square meters each, or one 24-square-meter room, which means that you can easily reduce or increase the number of treatment rooms or hospital beds, if such need arises. The “construction set” also makes it possible to add extra ward departments, should this be necessary, or fine-tune the structure of the building to the specifics of the land site. 

Health Constructor. Adapting to various combinations of the land site
Copyright: © UNK project


Health Constructor. Simplified masterplan
Copyright: © UNK project


Identity and Standardization 

As for the architectural image of the building, it will not be compromised because of such a “standardized” approach either. The architects proposed not to leave the hospital buildings devoid of their regional identity by introducing a possibility of experimenting with the form making of the entrance group. Its architecture can also reflect both special functional requirements and the region-specific identity. The central group of the premises can be designed in the form of a nomads tent, an igloo, or a flock of houses with pitched roofs. Thus, the central “non-standardized” element of the building, the one that meets the visitors’ eyes more often than the others, solves the problem of the hideously look-alike standardized clinics.

Health Constructor. The entrance block reflects the specifics of the Russian regions
Copyright: © UNK project


This technique “lives” in the same ballpark with the industrial construction principle – the quick-mount technology is achieved by using a system of facade modules. They will be supplied to the construction site ready-made, which will fully ensure the required construction rate and efficiency. The absence of the scaffolding – and the modules are mounted from inside the building, which provides a possibility for mounting them parallel to building up the main bulk – can reduce the time required for the facade work down to 1.5-2 months.

Health Constructor. The facade modules
Copyright: © UNK project


The background pattern of the facades of the clinic is composed on the basis of an identical approach, from modules of three sizes: the width of the ward for the hospitals (3.6 m), 1.35 meters for outpatient clinics, which fits all types of rooms there, and an all-purpose 1.8 unit for all the other blocks. The height is the same everywhere (3.2 meters), and equals the height of the standard floor.

Health Constructor. The facade modules
Copyright: © UNK project


In addition, the facade pattern can be executed in different colors, and can have accentuated surfaces, upon which, according to Julius Borisov, “you can apply different types of ornaments, getting different meanings, taking into account the specifics of the geographic context, or the local mentality, or the local climate.” The modules also allow for changing the thickness of the heat-retention layer, changing the percentage of glazing, making balconies in the hospitals, and using different decoration materials – essentially, for constructing different buildings.

Health Constructor. The facade modules
Copyright: © UNK project


Thus, “Health Constructor” solves two main problems of standardized construction that have to do with finding the individual in the standard. First, due to its being flexible and adaptive, it makes it possible to avoid excessive (and expensive) fine-tuning, which oftentimes pops up when stock solutions are used. And, second, it helps prevent the monotony of hospitals where function often prevails over architecture. The modern interpretation of the reusable project from the UNK Project combines technology and architecture in a graceful integrated manner, based on the scheme of mutual arrangement of blocks, which is so convenient that it takes on universal features, endowing it, within the framework of this concept, with as much flexibility as possible, both on the macro and micro level. Which, as a consequence, possesses all of the necessary prerequisites for achieving the main goal stated by the authors – namely, that of turning the hospital into a human-friendly and efficient space: a place where people get healed.
  • zooming
    1 / 9
    Health Constructor. Plan of the underground floor
    Copyright: © UNK project
  • zooming
    2 / 9
    Health Constructor. Plan of the first floor
    Copyright: © UNK project
  • zooming
    3 / 9
    Health Constructor. Plan of the second floor
    Copyright: © UNK project
  • zooming
    4 / 9
    Health Constructor. Plan of the third floor
    Copyright: © UNK project
  • zooming
    5 / 9
    Health Constructor. Plan of the fourth floor
    Copyright: © UNK project
  • zooming
    6 / 9
    Health Constructor. Plan of the fifth floor
    Copyright: © UNK project
  • zooming
    7 / 9
    Health Constructor. Plan of the sixth floor
    Copyright: © UNK project
  • zooming
    8 / 9
    Health Constructor. Plan of the first floor of the ambulance station
    Copyright: © UNK project
  • zooming
    9 / 9
    Health Constructor. Plan of the second floor of the ambulance station
    Copyright: © UNK project


Architect:
Yuliy Borisov
Firm:
UNK project

02 September 2020

Natalia Koriakovskaia

Written by:

Natalia Koriakovskaia
Translated by:
Anton Mizonov
Headlines now
​The Energy Family
The housing complex Symphony 34 will be built in Moscow’s Savelovsky district; it will consist of four towers from 36 to 54 stories high. Each of the towers has an image of its own, but they all are gathered into a single architectural ensemble – a fragment of a new high-rise urban space lying outside the Third Transport Ring.
The Fifth Element
The high-end residential development in the Vsevolozhsky Lane features a combination of expensive stone and metal textures, immersing them into a feast of ornaments. The house looks like a fantasy inspired by the theater of the Art Nouveau and Symbolism era; a kind of oriental fairy tale, which paradoxically allows it to avoid direct stylization and become a reflection of one of the aspects of modern Moscow life.
​Springboards and Patios
The central element of the manor house in the village of Antonovka, designed by Roman Leonidov, is the inner yard with pergolas, meant to remind its owner about his vacations in exotic countries. The exposed wooden structures emphasize the soaring diagonals of single-pitched roofs.
​Adding Up a Growing City
The housing quarter “1147” is located at the border between the old “Stalin” district in the north and the actively developing territories in the south. Its image responds to a difficult task: the compound brick facades of the neighboring sections are different, their height varying from 9 to 22 floors, and, if we are look from the street, it seems as though the front of the city development, consisting from long narrow elements, is forming some sophisticated array at this very moment in front of our eyes.
Agility of the Modular
In the Discovery housing complex that they designed, ADM architects proposed a modern version of structuralism: the form is based on modular cells, which, smoothly protruding and deepening, make the volumes display a kind of restrained flexibility, differentiated element by element. The lamellar and ledged facades are “stitched” with golden threads – they unite the volumes, emphasizing the textured character of the architectural solution.
Polyphony of a Chaste Style
The “ID Moskovskiy” housing project on St. Petersburg’s Moscow Avenue was designed by the team of Stepan Liphart in the past 2020. The ensemble of two buildings, joined by a colonnade, is executed in a generalized neoclassical style with elements of Art Deco.
​In Three Voices
The high-rise – 41 stories high – housing complex HIDE is being built on the bank of the Setun River, near the Poklonnaya Mountain. It consists of three towers of equal height, yet interpreted in three different ways. One of the towers, the most conspicuous one looks as if it was twisted in a spiral, composed of a multitude of golden bay windows.
​In the Space of Pobedy Park
In the project of a housing complex designed by Sergey Skuratov, which is now being built near the park of the Poklonnaya Hill, a multifunctional stylobate is turned into a compound city space with intriguing “access” slopes that also take on the role of mini-plazas. The architecture of the residential buildings responds to the proximity of the Pobedy Park, on the one hand, “dissolving in the air”, and, on the other hand, supporting the memorial complex rhythmically and color-wise.
​Dynamics of the Avenue
On Leningrad Avenue, not far away from the Sokol metro station, the construction of the A-Class business center Alcon II has been completed. ADM architects designed the main façade as three volumetric ribbons, as if the busy traffic of the avenue “shook” the matter sending large waves through it.
​Steamer at the Pier
An apartment hotel that looks like a ship with wide decks has been designed for a land plot on a lake shore in Moscow’s South Tushino. This “steamer” house, overlooking the lake and the river port, does indeed look as if it were ready to sail away.
The Magic of Rhythm or Ornament as a Theme
Designed by Sergey Tchoban, the housing complex Veren Place in St. Petersburg is the perfect example of inserting a new building into a historical city, and one the cases of implementing the strategy that the architect presented a few years ago in the book, which he coauthored with Vladimir Sedov, called “30:70. Architecture as a Balance of Forces”.
​Walking on Water
In the nearest future, the Marc Chagall Embankment will be turned into Moscow’s largest riverside park with green promenades, cycling and jogging trails, a spa center on water, a water garden, and sculptural pavilions designed in the spirit of the Russian avant-garde artists of the 1920, and, first of all, Chagall himself. In this issue, we are covering the second-stage project.
​Architectural Laboratory
A-Len has developed and patented the “Perfect Apartments” program, which totally eliminates “bad” apartment layouts. In this article, we are sharing how this program came around, what it is about, who can benefit from it, and how.
​“Architectural Archaeology of the Narkomfin Building”: the Recap
One of the most important events of 2020 has been the completion of the long-awaited restoration of the monument of Soviet avant-garde architecture – the Narkomfin Building, the progenitor of the typology of social housing in this country. The house retained its residential function as the main one, alongside with a number of artifacts and restoration clearances turned into living museum exhibits.
​LIFE on the Setun River
The area in the valley of the Setun River near the Vereiskaya Street got two new blocks of the “LIFE-Kutuzovsky” housing complex, designed by ADM architects. The two new blocks have a retail boulevard of their own, and a small riverside park.
​Celestial Tectonics
Three towers on a podium over the Ramenka River are the new dominant elements on the edge of a Soviet “microdistrict”. Their scale is quite modern: the height is 176 m – almost a skyscraper; the facades are made of glass and steel. Their graceful proportions are emphasized by a strict white grid, and the volumetric composition picks up the diagonal “grid of coordinates” that was once outlined in the southwest of Moscow by the architects of the 1970’s and 1980’s.
Clouds over the Railroad
In the stead of former warehouses near “Lyubertsy-1” station, a new housing complex has been built, which peacefully coexists with the railroad, with the flyover bridge, and with the diverse surrounding scenery, not only dominating over the latter, but improving it.
​Towers in a Forest
The authors of the housing complex “In the Heart of Pushkino” were faced with a difficult task: to preserve the already existing urban forest, at the same time building on it a compound of rather high density. This is how three towers at the edge of the forest appeared with highly developed public spaces in their podiums and graceful “tucks” in the crowning part of the 18-story volumes.
​The Towers of “Sputnik”
Six towers, which make up a large housing complex standing on the bank of the Moskva River at the very start of the Novorizhskoe Highway, provide the answers to a whole number of marketing requirements and meets a whole number of restrictions, offering a simple rhythm and a laconic formula for the houses that the developer preferred to see as “flashy”.
​The Starting Point
In this article, we are reviewing two retro projects: one is 20 years old, the other is 25. One of them is Saint Petersburg’s first-ever townhouse complex; the other became the first example of a high-end residential complex on Krestovsky Island. Both were designed and built by Evgeny Gerasimov and Partners.
The Path to New Ornamentation
The high-end residential complex “Aristocrat” situated next to a pine park at the start of the Rublev Highway presents a new stage of development of Moscow’s decorative historicist architecture: expensively decorated, yet largely based on light-colored tones, and masterfully using the romantic veneer of majolica inserts.
​Renovation: the Far East Style
The competition project of renovating two central city blocks of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, developed by UNK project, won the nomination “Architectural and planning solutions of city construction”.
​The Contact
The Istituto Centrale per la Grafica in Rome presents Sergei Tchoban’s exhibition “Imprint of the future. Destiny of Piranesi’s City”. The exhibition includes four etchings, based on Roman architectural views of the XVIII century complemented by futuristic insertions, as well as a lot of drawings that investigate the same topic, at times quite expressively. The exhibition poses questions, but does not seem to give any answers. Since going to Rome is pretty problematic now, let’s at least examine the pictures.
​In Search of Visual Clarity
In this article, we are reviewing a discussion devoted to the question of designing city space elements, which is quite complicated for the Russian expanses of land. The discussion was organized by the Genplan Institute of Moscow at the ArchMoscow convention in Gostiny Dvor.
​The City of the Sun
Jointly designed by Sergey Tchoban and Vladimir Plotkin, the VTB Arena Park complex can arguably be considered the perfect experiment on solving the centuries-old controversy between traditional architecture and modernism. The framework of the design code, combined with the creative character of the plastique-based dialogue between the buildings, formed an all-but-perfect fragment of the city fabric.
​...The Other Was Just Railroad Gin*
In their project of the third stage of “Ligovsky City” housing complex, located in the industrial “gray” belt of Saint Petersburg, the KCAP & Orange Architects & A-Len consortium set before themselves a task of keeping up the genius loci by preserving the contours of the railroad and likening the volumes of residential buildings to railroad containers, stacked up at the goods unloading station.
​Lions on Glass
While reconstructing the facades of Building 4 of Moscow Hospital #23, SPEECH architects applied a technique, already known from Saint Petersburg projects by Sergey Tchoban – cassettes with elements of classical architecture printed on glass. The project was developed gratis, as a help to the hospital.