In this article, we are covering the concept of a Central District Clinic for 240 patients, designed by Ginzburg Architects, which won at a competition organized by the Architects Union and the Healthcare Ministry.
Written by: Natalia Koriakovskaia Translated by: Anton Mizonov
The project by Ginzburg Architects was considered by the judging panel to be the one that provided the most accurate response to the competition specifications, which, thanks to the input from the Healthcare Ministry, posed challenges that standardized design never faced before.
First of all, the competitors were to design the clinic’s process flow diagram in a fundamentally different key than the mono-block structure type that has become widespread over the recent decades. A modern central district clinic is essentially a small town that includes a whole complex of medical facilities – an outpatient clinic, a hospital, an infectious diseases department, and an ambulance station. It is still a single building, yet it is a system of poly-blocks with a limited number of floors. Such interpretation reflects modern requirements having to do both with the traditional medical and engineering hospital equipment, and with the speedy development of technology, hence, the treatment and diagnosis facilities must not only be expandable but also require new organization of the engineering equipment. Another important factor is the humanistic message of such space, focused on the patients.
In the concept developed by Ginzburg Architects, such poly-structure unfolds on the land site, becoming an orthogonal composition of five major blocks – three treatment ones, a management and diagnosis one, and an outpatient’s clinic for children and adults. They develop on both sides of the inner linking gallery with a common lobby for all of the units – it acts like a core that organizes all the volumes on the land site. The lobby entrance is situated on the side end – from the side of the outpatient’s clinics – and is moved closer to the entrance areas, eliminating the conflict of flows of patients and employees of various departments. The first floor of the gallery is designed to ensure the connection between the clinic’s departments; the nuclei of the vertical communications also exit here – the staircase and elevator halls of the ward units, and the one for the visitors, the management, and the students.
The compact, yet at the same time flexible, structure of the blocks meets the two most important requirements for the modern Central District Clinic – to organize simple and convenient connections between the departments, and provide clear functional zoning, based on the specifics of treatment processes, and, hence, with equipping these or those blocks with specialized equipment. At the same time, the flexibility of the proposed structure makes it possible to change the clinics’ specialization in response to the specific needs of a particular area, and organize them proceeding not from concrete functions of individual departments but from the needs of the medical process in its entirety, where every component of the complex plays a part.
For example, the slab of the management and diagnosis block is stretched along the gallery, which establishes a convenient connection between the receiving and diagnosis departments. The operation, surgical, maternity, and cardiology departments are placed near one another in such a way that, should such a necessity arise, the intensive care wards could be activated for any patients from these departments. The functional diagnosis department and the laboratories are situated closer to the block of the outpatients’ clinics, and are linked by an overpass on the second-floor level, this overpass also accessible to the hospitals.
The ward blocks are situated on the opposite side from the entrances to the receiving department, forming semi-closed yards – the windows of the wards exit here. This way, they will be turned in the direction of the park territory and separated from all the noise sources, as well as from the loading bay, and the патологоанатомического корпуса by an elongated building with the receiving department. To provide for the patients’ relatives, as well as the medical students, the architects designed a small hotel on the first floor with an individual entrance.
The arrangement of the blocks along the main gallery axis makes it possible to freely change their number, as well as the sizes and the functions of the blocks. In addition, the structure can be efficiently “rearranged” and “mounted” on rather complex land sites in dense urban construction conditions. The presence of the central gallery in any of the options will ensure convenient technological connections between the departments.
As was already noted, the substantial transformation of the modern clinics is driven, in addition to the technological needs, by the general trend towards a more humanistic interpretation of the function. A special role is given to the ergonomics and comfort of the created space, its ability to adapt itself to patients and medical personnel, and mitigating the inevitably stressful situation by design techniques. The very fact that the number of floors of hospital buildings has been growing ever smaller, reaching the human-friendly size that is on a level with, or even lower than the treetops, is proof that an important step is made toward the new image.
The merger of architecture and landscape, as well as the extended tree planting program go a long way to create a positive image of hospitals. In the concept developed by Ginzburg Architects, it is represented by the parkland area from the side of the ward units, which ensures the patients’ privacy, by the trees that are planted in the inner semi-closed yards with lawns, and by the green slideways for the separately standing infection and anatomico-pathological departments. It is planned to make the flat roofs of the units green as well – considering the low-rise character and the predominantly horizontal character of the structures, such spaces are rather numerous, and they are quite viewable from the windows of the wards and offices.
Another thing that gets revised is the approach towards designing the public spaces of the clinics, such as lobbies. Connected to the lobby, the gallery in this case realizes the typology of an inner street. Furthermore, it gets the typical city services, such as cafe zones, bank offices, phone shops, and stores, whose presence helps both patients and personnel to get rid of the isolation feeling that inevitably develops behind the inevitable hospital fence.
The design solution of the facades combines the principle of human-friendly proportions with an industrial construction method. The facade grid itself is universal here – the project provides a ventilation facade with a top layer of slab material. The design solutions provide for maximum possible unification of construction spans, window sizes, stained glass windows, and the facade elements. At the same time, one can vary the rhythm and the accents, observing the layers of the joints, as well as the arrangement of the entrance groups, starting from the ground level. The volume of the gallery, which forms the space of the inner yards, is designed – by contrast with the main facades – as being lighter and more transparent.
The concept by Ginzburg Architects fully reflects the transformations that the Russian clinics are currently going through, following the revolution in designing the medical function that happened in Europe and the USA a few decades earlier. Clinics and hospitals are generally becoming less numerous, yet they are growing considerably bigger in size because large-scale investment into medical technologies naturally leads to what can be called “concentration of procedures'' and integration of functions, including research and development. A typical Central District Clinic combines many subdivisions into complex poly-structures, one of the most important factors for which is flexibility and comprehensiveness of inner links, as well as reliable and continuous functioning of numerous processes. At the same time, the function gets a fundamentally different wrap-up: it’s technological quality is inseparable from the quality of its physical surroundings, whose influence on the patients’ and personnel’s well-being is hard to overestimate.
In Three Voices
The high-rise – 41 stories high – housing complex HIDE is being built on the bank of the Setun River, near the Poklonnaya Mountain. It consists of three towers of equal height, yet interpreted in three different ways. One of the towers, the most conspicuous one looks as if it was twisted in a spiral, composed of a multitude of golden bay windows.
In the Space of Pobedy Park
In the project of a housing complex designed by Sergey Skuratov, which is now being built near the park of the Poklonnaya Hill, a multifunctional stylobate is turned into a compound city space with intriguing “access” slopes that also take on the role of mini-plazas. The architecture of the residential buildings responds to the proximity of the Pobedy Park, on the one hand, “dissolving in the air”, and, on the other hand, supporting the memorial complex rhythmically and color-wise.
Dynamics of the Avenue
On Leningrad Avenue, not far away from the Sokol metro station, the construction of the A-Class business center Alcon II has been completed. ADM architects designed the main façade as three volumetric ribbons, as if the busy traffic of the avenue “shook” the matter sending large waves through it.
Steamer at the Pier
An apartment hotel that looks like a ship with wide decks has been designed for a land plot on a lake shore in Moscow’s South Tushino. This “steamer” house, overlooking the lake and the river port, does indeed look as if it were ready to sail away.
The Magic of Rhythm or Ornament as a Theme
Designed by Sergey Tchoban, the housing complex Veren Place in St. Petersburg is the perfect example of inserting a new building into a historical city, and one the cases of implementing the strategy that the architect presented a few years ago in the book, which he coauthored with Vladimir Sedov, called “30:70. Architecture as a Balance of Forces”.
Walking on Water
In the nearest future, the Marc Chagall Embankment will be turned into Moscow’s largest riverside park with green promenades, cycling and jogging trails, a spa center on water, a water garden, and sculptural pavilions designed in the spirit of the Russian avant-garde artists of the 1920, and, first of all, Chagall himself. In this issue, we are covering the second-stage project.
A-Len has developed and patented the “Perfect Apartments” program, which totally eliminates “bad” apartment layouts. In this article, we are sharing how this program came around, what it is about, who can benefit from it, and how.
“Architectural Archaeology of the Narkomfin Building”: the Recap
One of the most important events of 2020 has been the completion of the long-awaited restoration of the monument of Soviet avant-garde architecture – the Narkomfin Building, the progenitor of the typology of social housing in this country. The house retained its residential function as the main one, alongside with a number of artifacts and restoration clearances turned into living museum exhibits.
LIFE on the Setun River
The area in the valley of the Setun River near the Vereiskaya Street got two new blocks of the “LIFE-Kutuzovsky” housing complex, designed by ADM architects. The two new blocks have a retail boulevard of their own, and a small riverside park.
Three towers on a podium over the Ramenka River are the new dominant elements on the edge of a Soviet “microdistrict”. Their scale is quite modern: the height is 176 m – almost a skyscraper; the facades are made of glass and steel. Their graceful proportions are emphasized by a strict white grid, and the volumetric composition picks up the diagonal “grid of coordinates” that was once outlined in the southwest of Moscow by the architects of the 1970’s and 1980’s.
Clouds over the Railroad
In the stead of former warehouses near “Lyubertsy-1” station, a new housing complex has been built, which peacefully coexists with the railroad, with the flyover bridge, and with the diverse surrounding scenery, not only dominating over the latter, but improving it.
Towers in a Forest
The authors of the housing complex “In the Heart of Pushkino” were faced with a difficult task: to preserve the already existing urban forest, at the same time building on it a compound of rather high density. This is how three towers at the edge of the forest appeared with highly developed public spaces in their podiums and graceful “tucks” in the crowning part of the 18-story volumes.
The Towers of “Sputnik”
Six towers, which make up a large housing complex standing on the bank of the Moskva River at the very start of the Novorizhskoe Highway, provide the answers to a whole number of marketing requirements and meets a whole number of restrictions, offering a simple rhythm and a laconic formula for the houses that the developer preferred to see as “flashy”.
The Starting Point
In this article, we are reviewing two retro projects: one is 20 years old, the other is 25. One of them is Saint Petersburg’s first-ever townhouse complex; the other became the first example of a high-end residential complex on Krestovsky Island. Both were designed and built by Evgeny Gerasimov and Partners.
The Path to New Ornamentation
The high-end residential complex “Aristocrat” situated next to a pine park at the start of the Rublev Highway presents a new stage of development of Moscow’s decorative historicist architecture: expensively decorated, yet largely based on light-colored tones, and masterfully using the romantic veneer of majolica inserts.
Renovation: the Far East Style
The competition project of renovating two central city blocks of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, developed by UNK project, won the nomination “Architectural and planning solutions of city construction”.
The Istituto Centrale per la Grafica in Rome presents Sergei Tchoban’s exhibition “Imprint of the future. Destiny of Piranesi’s City”. The exhibition includes four etchings, based on Roman architectural views of the XVIII century complemented by futuristic insertions, as well as a lot of drawings that investigate the same topic, at times quite expressively. The exhibition poses questions, but does not seem to give any answers. Since going to Rome is pretty problematic now, let’s at least examine the pictures.
In Search of Visual Clarity
In this article, we are reviewing a discussion devoted to the question of designing city space elements, which is quite complicated for the Russian expanses of land. The discussion was organized by the Genplan Institute of Moscow at the ArchMoscow convention in Gostiny Dvor.
The City of the Sun
Jointly designed by Sergey Tchoban and Vladimir Plotkin, the VTB Arena Park complex can arguably be considered the perfect experiment on solving the centuries-old controversy between traditional architecture and modernism. The framework of the design code, combined with the creative character of the plastique-based dialogue between the buildings, formed an all-but-perfect fragment of the city fabric.
...The Other Was Just Railroad Gin*
In their project of the third stage of “Ligovsky City” housing complex, located in the industrial “gray” belt of Saint Petersburg, the KCAP & Orange Architects & A-Len consortium set before themselves a task of keeping up the genius loci by preserving the contours of the railroad and likening the volumes of residential buildings to railroad containers, stacked up at the goods unloading station.
Lions on Glass
While reconstructing the facades of Building 4 of Moscow Hospital #23, SPEECH architects applied a technique, already known from Saint Petersburg projects by Sergey Tchoban – cassettes with elements of classical architecture printed on glass. The project was developed gratis, as a help to the hospital.
Park of Sentiments
The project of “Romantic Park Tuchkov Buyan”, which was developed by the consortium of Studio 44 and WEST 8, and has won an international competition, combines sculptural landscape design and wooden structures, variety of spatial features and an eventful agenda, designed for diverse audience, with a beautiful and complex passeist idea of a palace park, meant to evoke thoughts and feelings.
Architecture as an Educational Tool
The concept of a charity school “Tochka Budushchego” (“Point of the Future”) in Irkutsk is based on cutting-edge educational programs, and is designed, among other things, for adapting orphaned children for independent life. An important role is played by the architecture of the building: its structure and different types of interconnected spaces.
The Gallery Approach
In this article, we are covering the concept of a Central District Clinic for 240 patients, designed by Ginzburg Architects, which won at a competition organized by the Architects Union and the Healthcare Ministry.
In this issue, we are publishing the concept of a standard clinic designed by UNK Project, which took second place in the competition organized by the Union of Architects of Russia in collaboration with the Healthcare Ministry.
From Foundation to Teaspoon
Based on the taste of their friendly clients, the architects Olga Budennaya and Roman Leonidov designed and built a house in the Moscow metropolitan area playing Art Nouveau. At the same time, they enriched the typology of a private house with modern functions of a garage loft and a children’s art studio.
Continuation and Development
The second “office” stage of Comcity, the most popular business park of the “New Moscow” area, continues the underground street of the already existing part of the complex, responding to its architectural identity.
The Flying One
Expected to become an analogue of Moscow’s Skolkovo, the project of the High Park campus at Saint Petersburg’s ITMO University, designed by Studio 44, mesmerizes us with its sheer scale and the passion that the architects poured into it. Its core – the academic center – is interpreted as an avant-garde composition inspired by Piazza del Campo with a bell tower; the park is reminiscent of the “rays” of the main streets of Saint Petersburg, and, if watched from a birds-eye view, the whole complex looks like a motherboard with at least four processors on it. The design of the academic building even displays a few features of a sports arena. The project has a lot of meanings and allusions about it; all of them are united by plastique energy that the hadron collider itself could be jealous of.
A Comfortable City in Itself
The project that we are about to cover is seemingly impossible amidst human anthills, chaotically interspersed with old semi-neglected dachas. Meanwhile, the housing complex built on the Comcity business part does offer a comfortable environment of decent city: not excessively high-rise and moderately private as a version of the perfect modern urbanist solution.
Moving on the Edge
The housing complex “Litsa” (“Faces”) on Moscow’s Khodynka Field is one of the new grand-scale buildings that complement the construction around it. This particular building skillfully tackles the scale, subjugating it to the silhouette and the pattern; it also makes the most of the combination of a challenging land site and formidable square footage requirements, packing a whole number of features within one volume, so the house becomes an analogue of a city. And, to cap it all, it looks like a family that securely protects the children playing in the yard from... well, from everything, really.
Visual Stability Agent
A comparatively small house standing on the border of the Bolshevik Factory combines two diametrically opposite features: expensive materials and decorative character of Art Deco, and a wide-spaced, even somewhat brutal, facade grid that highlights a laminated attic.
The Faraday Cage
The project of the boutique apartment complex in the 1st Truzhenikov Lane is the architects’ attempt to squeeze a considerable volume into a tiny spot of land, at the same time making it look graceful and respectable. What came to their rescue was metal, stone, and curvilinear glass.
The Union of Art and Technology
His interest for architecture of the 1930’s is pretty much the guiding star for Stepan Liphart. In his project of the “Amo” house on St. Petersburg’s Vasilyevsky Island, the architect based himself on Moscow Art Deco - aesthetically intricate and decorated in scratch-work technique. As a bonus, he developed the city block typology as an organic structure.
The project that Evgeniy Gerasimov and Partners developed for Moscow’s Leningrad Avenue: the tallest building in the company’s portfolio, continuing the tradition of Moscow’s Stalin architecture.
In the project that they developed for a southern region of Russia, OSA Architects use multilayered facades that create an image of seaside resort architecture, and, in the vein of the latest trends of today, mix up different social groups that the residents belong to.
Just a Mirror for the Sun
The house that Sergey Skuratov designed in Nikolovorobinsky Alley is thought out down to the last detail. It adapts three historical facades, interprets a feeling of a complex city, is composed of many layers, and catches plenty of sunlight, from sunrises to sunsets. The architect himself believes that the main role of this house is creating a background for another nearby project of his, Art House in the Tessinsky Alley.
Part of the Whole
On June 5, the winners of Moscow Architectural Award were announced. The winners list includes the project of a school in Troitsk for 2,100 students, with its own astronomy dome, IT testing ground, museum, and a greenhouse on the roof.
Yet another project of a private school, in which Archimatika realizes the concept of aesthetic education and introduces a new tradition: combining Scandinavian and Soviet experience, turning to works of art, and implementing sustainable technologies.
In the “Parallel House” residence that he designed in the Moscow metropolitan area, the architect Roman Leonidov created a dramatic sculptural composition from totally basic shapes – parallelepipeds, whose collision turned into an exciting show.
In the Istra district of Moscow metropolitan area, the tandem of 4izmerenie and ARS-ST designed a sports complex – a monovolume that has the shape of a chamfered parallelepiped with a pointed “nose” like a ship’s bow.