Китайская архитектурная философия архитектуры в категориях Инь и Ян - от традиции к современности. Chinese Architectural Philosophy of Yin and Yang——From the Tradition to Modernity
Yin-Yang philosophy can be considered as the most basic and core content of Chinese traditional philosophy, which has been deeply expanded and applied in different fields and has profoundly influenced all aspects of Chinese traditional culture, such as painting, calligraphy, seal cutting, opera, medicine, diet, architecture. Also, Yin and Yang exert spiritual influence on architecture through the specific operation methods and guiding principles elaborated by "feng shui" (fengshui theory and geomancy theory), which are the most profound semantics of Chinese traditional architecture and have been run through thousands of years. The traditional Yin-Yang philosophy can be regarded as a basic understanding of the constitution of the universe. "Yin and Yang" constitute "Tao", namely, "Yin" and "Yang" are the most basic composition of the universe. According to natural law, "Tao" is formed by the interaction of Yin and Yang. Things that have only Yin or Yang cannot last long and will evolve to the other direction. Yin and Yang seem to be opposite, but in fact they cannot be separated, and they would promote each other. In other words, Yin and Yang have always been both opposite and complementary. In order to express the Yin-Yang philosophy, traditional architecture usually use the architectural languages or images which are opposite but mutually complementary, such as the coexistence of main and auxiliary colors, the juxtaposition of void and solid and the orderly forms, the existence between to be or not to be, reflecting the characteristics of contingency, integrity, timeliness and ecology. In the works and articles of modern architects, as well as in modern architectural criticism, the words of "Yin and Yang" have been rarely seen. Compared with traditional architecture, modern architecture is completely a different "language". Modern architects no longer use the traditional words of "Yin and Yang" to express the process of thinking in design, but use other vocabularies and grammar to express the artistic conception of being "opposite and complementary". Sometimes these architectural languages are even completely foreign languages. They seem to have nothing to do with the semantics of Chinese traditional architecture, but in fact they are almost "synonymous words" or "synonyms". However, the philosophy of Chinese traditional culture seems to be crude and unsophisticated, while imported words seem to be fashionable, delicate, dazzling and "practical". Based on the works of three Chinese architects, this paper expounds the expression of Yin-Yang philosophy of "being opposite and complementary" in modern architecture from three aspects, such as multi-contrast, wholeness and microvariation and density.