Конкурсантам необходимо предложить решения жилищного кризиса, который, по прогнозам, в ближайшем будущем возникнет в иракском городе Мосул. Сегодня город находится под оккупацией ИГ, но власти страны ведут борьбу за его освобождение. В случае успеха, в Мосул захотят вернуться беженцы, но пока для их возвращения нет практически никаких условий. Как обеспечить всех нуждающихся жильем, учитывая ограниченность финансовых ресурсов? На этот вопрос предстоит ответить участникам.
Mosul city suffers from a chronic housing shortage. The deficit in housing units in Nineveh is estimated to have reached 172,000 units in mid-2016, with a 53,000 units’ deficit in Mosul alone. The major contributing factors to this shortage can be defined as: 1) the scarcity of tracts of land for new housing projects; 2) the failure to update the city’s 1973 master plan and create formal urban expansion zones for housing development (Un-Habitat, 2016).
Only three housing complexes were built in Al-Yarmuk, Al-Arabi, and Al-Karama neighbourhoods in the 1980s. The Al-Hadbaa project near Tal Al-Ruman is the only recent public residential project (although only partially completed). This was later confiscated by Daesh.
New housing provision was limited to the private sector. The housing demands of poorer members of society were mainly met in the old city of Mosul where existing buildings became cramped with families living in shared accommodation (Un-Habitat, 2016).
After 2003, informal settlements became a housing solution and a lucrative business, causing additional pressure on public utility networks and services. Before the fall of Mosul, there were no national policies in place to regularise informal settlements.
The foreseeable challenge:
Following Daesh’s takeover of Mosul, investments in the housing sector and all ongoing projects were halted. As many people abandoned the city, the vacant housing units were taken over by Daesh fighters’ families and followers. To date, although the city’s existing housing stock has not suffered complete physical Destruction, certainly compared to Syrian contexts the city has however suffered from a protracted lack of maintenance.
Further destruction in the hot spots around Mosul and inside the city is likely to put additional pressure on housing within the city. IDPs living in Mosul city may not be able to return to their hometowns and new IDPs may join them as the battles to retrieve their areas from Daesh intensify. With the lack of an updated and effectual master plan for the city, it would not be surprising to see informal settlements proliferate and new encroachments on the city’s agricultural hinterlands taking place.
The United Nations and the International Organisation of Migrants warned that the current number of internally displaced people from Mosul is estimated at over 500,000 (January 2017) and could reach 1.2 Million as the military operations continue. Some formal IDP camps have been established, but they will not have the capacity to accommodate the majority of new displacements.
The 53.000 units’ deficit is predicted to significantly rise due to the current military operation to retake the city of Mosul from Daesh.